★ BMW Motorrad
BMW Motorrad is the motorcycle brand of the German company BMW, part of its corporate business and brand development. It produced motorcycles since 1923, and reached a record level of sales for the fifth consecutive year in 2015. A total of 136.963 vehicles sold in 2015, BMW recorded an increase of 10.9% in sales compared to 2014. In may 2011, of 2.000 th motorcycle produced by BMW Motorrad was a R1200GS.
1. History. (История)
The company started as aircraft engine manufacturer in early 20th century and through World War BMW produced its first motorcycle in 1923, the R32 with a flat twin boxer engine. BMW Motorrad still uses the configuration of the flat-twin boxer, but now manufactures motorcycles with different engine configurations.
2. The current production. (Текущего производства)
Except the G310, which is produced by contact of Tamil Nadu, India plant, all products of BMW Motorrads motorcycle is manufactured at its plant in Berlin, Germany. Some engines are manufactured in Austria, China and Taiwan. Most modern motorcycles in Motorrads BMW series was developed by David Robb, who was the chief designer of the company from 1993 to 2012 when he was replaced by Edgar Heinrich.
The most popular model is the R1200GS and R1200GS adventure his brother, who went 24.467 units – accounting for 28% of annual production BMW. Current production includes a variety of shaft, chain, and models with belt driven, with motors from 310 GK 1.649 CC, and models designed for off-road, dual purpose, sport, and touring activities.
In 2008, BMW introduced two boxer HP2 Sport, and entered the serious off-road competition motorcycle market with the release of the BMW G450X motorcycle.
BMW Motorrad motorcycles are categorized into product families, and each family is assigned a different prefix letter. Current family:
- G series – single-cylinder engines of 449 to 652 capacity SS with a chain drive. Models are G450X now discontinued, G650GS, G650 in km, model, G650 Xmoto, and the G650 Xchallenge and G650 Xcountry. Of the 450 engines are made and Kymco in Taiwan. In 2009 and 2010 650 CC engine parts were manufactured Rotax in Austria, with the engine assembled by Loncin enterprise, Ltd in China. Arriving in 2016, BMW is G310R, single-cylinder liquid-cooled models are produced in India, TVS motor company.
- C series – Maxi-scooters called urban mobility vehicles BMW.
- F series – parallel-twin engines of 798 CC, chain, or belt drive. Models are F650GS, F700GS, F800GS, F800R, F800S, F800ST F800GT I. On the F650GS was powered by a single cylinder 652cc reason the Austrian Rotax engine.
- R series – twin-cylinder boxer engine capacity of 1.170 CC with a shaft drive. Model R1250GS, R1200GS, R1200R, R1200RT, R1200RS, R1200S & R ninet.
- K series four-cylinder engines 1.157 to capacity 1.649 CC with shaft drive. Models are K1200LT, K1300GT, K1300R and K1300S. In 2011, BMW Motorrad launched the six-cylinder 1.649 CC K1600GT and K1600GTL.
- Series S – S1000RR – sport bike with transverse-mounted, 999 CC inline-four engine. Model S1000R, S1000XR.
3. Sale. (Продажа)
BMW Motorrad achieved record sales for the fifth consecutive time in 2015. A total of 136.963 vehicles sold in 2015, BMW was 10.9% more sales compared to 2014. The biggest single market in 2015 was again Germany 23.823 units, followed by USA 16.501 units, France 12.550 units, Italy 11.150 units, UK 8.200 units and Spain 7.976 units.
The goal until 2020 for the supply of 200.000 cars to customers, BMW Motorrad is aiming to increase its dealership from 1.100 to 1.500 in the future. As it was still BMWs most successful motorcycle R 1200 GS with 23.681 units sold in 2015.
4. Race. (Гонки)
BMW Motorrad regularly enters motorcycles Dakar rally, annual car, truck, and motorcycle race held traditionally on the European and African lands, and more recently in South America, were presented to riders such as Simon Pavey and motorcycles, celebrities, Charley Boorman. BMW Motorrad motorcycles have won the Dakar rally six times.
In 2007, BMW Motorrad announced its entry to the world Superbike championship in 2009, launching their S1000RR motorcycle. In 2009, the factory team of the season was known as team alpha BMW and includes Spanish rider Ruben Chaus and Australian rider Troy Corser. In the 2010 season, Chaus and Corser were joined on the track team Reitwagen BMW riders Andrew pitt and Roland Resch, also riding the S1000RR.
4.1. Race. The Isle of man TT. (Остров Мэн ТТ)
In recent years BMW Motorrad has enjoyed new success in the Isle of man TT race. Until 2014, the last success in the solo category, the event was in 1939, when Georg Meier won the senior TT. After 75 years, the company BMW has once again took first place on the podium at the 2014 Isle of man TT, where Michael Dunlop was piloting the BMW S1000RR to first place in the opening race of the Superbike. Then Michael Dunlop ended the week with victory in the senior TT.
In 2016 Isle of man TT, Michael Dunlop again took the award in the opening Superbike TT for BMW. Dunlop led the race from start to finish with another BMW rider, Ian Hutchinson. Dunlop also set a new outright lap record in 133.962 miles 215.591 km / h and set a new record of the regatta from 1 h 44 min 14.259 C, after 226 miles 364 km race.
BMW strollers were also many successes in TT, mainly during the 1960s and early 1970-ies.
In General, BMW has won 34 of man TT race in both solo and sidecar units.
5. Types of engines. (Типы двигателей)
There are four lines of BMW motorcycles:
- K Series. (Серия K)
- The R Series. (Серия R)
- F and G series singles.
- F series Twins. (F серии Близнецы)
The series differ primarily in the class of engine that each uses.
5.1. Types of engines. F and G series singles. (F и G серии синглов)
F series single-cylinder BMW motorcycles was first launched in 1994, as the F650, and was constructed by Aprilia around a carbureted 650 CC four-stroke, four valve, single piston engine, and chain drive. The mission for the F 650 was to provide an entry level BMW motorcycle. In 2000, the F650 was redesigned, now with fuel injection, and with an inscription on the F650GS. Off-road focused F650 Dakar model was also launched this year. In 2002 saw the addition of the F650CS Scarver motorcycle line. In Scarver different from the F650GS variants in that it has used belt drive instead of chain, have a much lower seat height, and was intended for use on the road. All F650 motorcycles produced from 2000 to 2007 used a 652 engine built in Austria by Rotax and were constructed by BMW in Berlin.
In late 2006, the g series of offroad biased motorcycles was launched using the same engine 652 CC installed on the F650GS, although that engine is no longer produced by Rotax. The latest version of the 652cc single engine fitted in the new G650GS is now produced in Berlin after 2 years production in Loncin, China.
In November 2007, the G450X sport Enduro motorcycle was launched using a 450 CC single-cylinder engine. On the G450X contains a number of technological improvements over the Japanese off road racing motorcycles but the most unusual and significant was the use of a single pivot point on the driving sprocket and the pendulum. This unusual configuration allowed for a very tense drive chain with no slop and eliminated acceleration squat. The former benefit saves on chain and sprocket wear out and will allow a more consistent drive geometry and fully available rear suspension under hard acceleration.
5.2. Types of engines. F series Twins. (F серии Близнецы)
In mid 2006 the F series added two new motorcycles to the lineup, the F800S sport F800ST motorcycle and sport car, and use the 798 CC parallel-twin engine built by Rotax. Both motorcycles also feature a belt drive system similar to the one that was on the F650CS. In 2007 the single cylinder F650GS was replaced by a two-cylinder model F800GS and F650GS. The latter uses a de-tuned version of the engine 798 CC installed on the F800GS, marking a departure from BMWs naming Convention.
5.3. Types of engines. The R series flat Twins. (В R серии Плоский Близнецы)
The R series are built around a horizontally opposed flat-twin boxer engine. In an engine installed with a longitudinal crankshaft, the cylinder heads protrude from the arches. Originally, R series bikes with air-cooled head, but currently only with partial oil cooling or water cooling. The type of internal combustion engine, cooling, used in various motors R series leads to the use of distinguished names airhead and oilhead.
5.4. Types of engines. Rattle. (Погремушка)
Bubbles are BMW motorcycles with an air cooled flat-twin engine that were built from 1923 to 1995. Most of the pacifiers, made from 1969 to 1995 used BMW 247 engine, although 248 / 1 engines were used on medium R-series motorcycles from 1978 to 1993. Even high performance motorcycles, such as used R90S engine 247, and its successor, the R100RS was installed oil cooler.
5.5. Types of engines. Oilheads
In the "Oilhead" is the name to describe the engine of the BMW motorcycle engines, partial oil-cooling and to distinguish these systems from the previous air-cooled "airhead" model. In Oilheads finned cylinders with conventional air cooling, but the four-valve cylinder-head oil-cooled. Unlike previous BMW boxers, which had a single camshaft in the crankcase is different, above or below the crankshaft, Oilhead has a camshaft in each head. It is still technically overhead valve engine, not a real unit with overhead camshaft, the camshaft bears on a very short pushrods that operate the valve rocker arm. In 2013, BMW introduced water-cooling range fighter. The engine remains in the line BMW R ninet motorcycles.
5.6. Types of engines. Water-cooled Boxer engines. (Вод-охлаженные двигатели Boxer)
R1200GS from 2013, some BMW motorcycles with water-cooled heads, but as oilheads, the new engines still use air cooling of the cylinders. Approximately 34% of the cooling due to water cooling, which is concentrated in the highest generation of heat, such as around the exhaust-valve seat, etc.
Holes are on the top of the cylinder, not behind as before, and the exhaust below is not from the front.
5.7. Types of engines. R series singles. (R серии синглов)
Between the introduction of Р39 in 1925 and the cessation of P27 in Postavy in 1967, BMW made motorcycles with single-cylinder engine. They were similar in design to its flat-Twin motorcycles, including the use of a drive shaft, but the engine was mounted vertically inside the frame.
5.8. Types of engines. Engines K series straight. (Двигатели серии K прямой)
K series BMWs water-cooled engines k75 is equipped with three, or four, or six cylinder K1600. Until 2004, all series of engines, whether three or four cylinders were the original "flying brick" layout, so named because of the appearance of the engine. The location of these original motors K is unique within motorcycling is that the engine is mounted lying on its side with the handle on the right side of the bike and the cylinder head and valve mechanism on the left. This format had the advantage that it allows the system disk to have only one 90-degree transfer to final drive housing, potentially reducing the losses of the drive train. All the original format engines also were crossed on dry automotive clutches. Uniform use of the traditional to the engine is stopped with the K1200 models in 2005, with a new 1200 series engine that was radically different from the flying brick that it was the usual transversely 55-degree slant-mounted four-cylinder engine coupled with a wet clutch and integral gearbox design. It was at this time also that the bike the drive shaft moves from right to left. Despite this new engine, the traditional flying brick K engine continued in service with the giant K1200LT luxury touring motorcycle until 2009, after which flying brick bowed along with the K1200LT. It was an event that presaged the development of a top engine and From the point of view of size and complexity, six-cylinder K1600 series is established on the model of the K1600GT and GTL.
The first K-series production bike was the K100, which was introduced in 1983. In 1988, BMW introduced the K1, which had a system Bosch Motronic fuel injection.
From 1985 to 1996, the k75 740 CC three-cylinder engine was produced.
In 1991, BMW increased displacement from K100 987 CC to 1.097 CC and the model designation became the K1100. In the K1100LT was the first with the new engine. In 1998 BMW had once again increased to 1.170 CC. This upgraded flat four engine appeared in the K1200RS. This engine continued to be produced in the K1200LT range, with a power boosting update in 2004, until the end of the LT production cycle.
The later K1200 engine is 1.157 CC, transverse inline-four, was announced in 2003 and first seen in the 2005 K1200S. The new engine generates 123 kW / 165 HP and is tilted forward 55 degrees. It is 43 cm 17 in width, giving the bikes a very low center of mass without reducing maximum angles.
In October 2008, BMW announced the new K1300GT, K1300R and K1300S models, which are equipped with a large engine 1293 CC power up to 175 HP 130 kW. The new engine produces maximum power of 1.000 rpm lower than the previous engine, producing more torque, partly because of the butterfly flap fitted in the exhaust gases.
In 2011, BMW launched the K1600 series - K1600GT and K1600GTL IN - New 1.649 CC 100.6 CU in inline six-cylinder engine, which is mounted crosswise to the hull. The engine is angled forward by 50°. The engine was originally used on the concept 6, a concept bike that was shown in 2009 at the motor show EICMA in Milan. BMW claims that the engine at 560 mm 22 wide, just 67 mm 2.6 inches wider than the K1300 engine, is the narrowest six-cylinder engine ever produced. Cylinder bore is 72.0 mm 2.83 In, and the distance between cylinder centres 77 mm 3.0 V. the Camshaft is hollow, with Cam lobes pressed on, which saves about 2 kg 0.91 kg. the Engine has electronic throttle control, multiple riding modes that can be set according to road conditions.
6. The model designation. (Обозначение модели)
BMW uses a three-segment item for motorcycles. The first segment indicates the engine type, the second indicates the approximate engine size in cubic centimeters, with one exception: the F 650 GS, which has an engine with a displacement of 798cc and the third indicates the class of motorcycle. Three segments, separated by spaces.
A similar 3-segment nomenclature is used for BMW cars. However, there is much less consistency in the whole range relative to the second segment displacement engine / 100.
- With – water-cooled, inline 4-cylinder Superbike.
- R – air-cooled, horizontally-opposed "boxer" 2-cylinder, oil-cooled 1994-2013, water-cooled, 2013 R1200GS and R1200RT 2014.
- G – water cooled, vertical 1 cylinder.
- F – water cooled, vertical 1 cylinder for 2006, vertical 2-cylinder since 2006.
- K – water-cooled, inline 3-, 4 - or 6-cylinder.
Engine capacity in CC:
- Modern models: 1600, 1300, 1250, 1000, 900, 800, 650, 400 and 310. Previous models 450, 850, 1100, 1150 and 1200.
- Older model BMWs divide the approximate engine on a dozen models. For example, the k75 is equipped with ≈ 750 SS.
Styling suffix designations:
- LS – luxury Sport.
- RT – Reise Tourer travel.
- R – road or Roadster-typically naked.
- With Cruiser. (С Крейсера)
- S – Sport. (С – Спорт)
- RR racing replica. (Гоночная реплика РР)
- T – Touring. (Т – Туринг)
- PC originally stood for Rennsport, but since 1976 stood at Reisesport.
- LT – luxury Luxus Tourer.
- G / s – Gelande / Strasse off-road / street.
- B – Bagger. (Б – Баггер)
- GS – Gelande Sport off-road sport Enduro.
- CS – classic sport.
- Saint – Straße street or sport Tourer.
- GT – Gran Turismo or Grand touring.
In addition, a Bicycle can have the following modifiers in its name:
- With – custom. (С – собственные)
- L – Suite. (Л – Люкс)
- P – police. (П – полиция)
- A – ABS. (А – АБС)
- PD – Paris Dakar.
Examples: K 1200 s R 1200 RT, f 650 GS, R 1150 RSL, K 1200 LT, K 1200 LT t R 1200 RT-P R 1200 RSA, with 1000.
Before the introduction of the 100 series and the R 1100 series motorcycles, the letter prefix was always the same, and the numbers were either based on displacement, as mentioned above, or just model numbers.
7.1. Technology. Unilateral rear suspension. (Односторонняя задняя подвеска)
Suspension the first BMW monolever appeared in 1980 on the then new R80G / S range. She immediately single joint behind the engine / transmission unit. This system was later included in the updated version of K & R series.
7.2. Technology. Paralever
Paralever is a further advance in BMWs unilateral rear suspension photo on the right. It divides the torque reaction as the suspension compresses and extends, avoiding the tendency to squat or rise during acceleration and reduce the chatter of tires on the road surface. It was introduced in 1988 R 80 100 R GS and GS motorcycles.
In 2005, together with the introduction of the "hexhead", BMW inverted the Paralever and moved the torque arm from the bottom to the top of the drive shaft housing photos. This reduces underhang of components and tends to increase ground clearance in right lean.
The term "Paralever" comes from the word "parallelogram" and "lever". On the "lever pivot arm, and "a parallelogram" is a form between the four elements of the rear suspension. Other motorcycle manufacturers have patented similar designs, including Arturo magni for MV Agusta and magni-Moto Guzzi cars, and Moto Guzzis compact reactive Shaft.
7.3. Technology. Telescopic fork. (Телескопическая вилка)
In 1935, BMW installed the first production hydraulically damped telescopic fork to its R12 P17 and motorcycles. BMW still uses telescopic forks today on the F-series, G-series, HP and S1000RR motorcycles.
R-series, which used only the Telelever and Duolever front suspension for several years, partially returned to telescopic forks in the 2015 model year with the introduction of the R 1200 R and R 1200 RS.
7.4. Technology. Fork Earles. (Вилка Earles)
Englishman Ernest Earles developed a unique triangulated fork that, unlike telescopic forks, resists the side-forces presented by the strollers. BMW is equipped with Earles fork to all its models for 14 years from 1955. In the event, this year that to use the stroller a peak and quickly dropped in most European markets, for example in the UK, but the Earles fork system was well too much Solo riders. It makes the front of the motorcycle to rise under braking the reverse of the action of a telescopic fork. The mechanical strength of this design sometimes appears as a weakness to the rest of the motorcycle, because the transmission of loads into the frame where damage is more difficult and expensive.
7.5. Technology. Telelever Fork. (Вилка Telelever)
Developed by Saxon-Motodd in Britain in the early 1980-ies, Telelever fork is designed to improve handling stability during cornering and braking. In the Telelever uses a conventional telescopic fork, and racks only contain the lubricating oil. The springing and damping functions are considered monoshock attached to the "Telelever" levers. The lever on the front of the cylinder block and wishbones front is attached with pink joint support brace connecting the fork sliders. As there is no bottom triple clamp, fork sliders, longer and lighter than on a conventional telescopic fork and a large slider / tube overlap reduces torsional Flex and unsprung masses.
In the Telelever system the main advantage is that it separates the control function from the function of braking and suspension brake force back through the lever, thereby eliminating brake dive. During braking, the trail and castor angle increasing, and not decreasing as with traditional telescopic forks. Some riders reported conventional forks, Telelever that initially may not "feel", and that lack of immersion, first in confusion, but R1100S BoxerCup replica model with its own racing series shows that Telelever fork provides responsive and predictable handling.
The term "Telelever" is a portmanteau of the words "fork" and "lever", "lever" means the lever arm.
7.6. Technology. Duolever
In 2004, BMW has announced the launch of K1200S, incorporating a new front suspension based on a design by Norman Hossack. BMW recognised this fact but paid Hossack no royalties. BMW named its new front suspension Duolever. 2018 Duolever was used on all K1300 and K1600 models.
The official BMW Motorrad explanation of the duolever include:
The advantage of this front wheel suspension on the motorcycle market is a high torsional stiffness. BMW Motorrad Duolever front suspension is not influenced by negative forces in the same manner as a conventional telefork, the stationary and take-off tubes are bent in the transverse and longitudinal direction during jounce / rebound and steering. Its two trailing links absorb the forces resulting from shaking / rebound and keep the wheel stable. Thus, any torsioning is excluded and the front wheel suspension is very precise. The steering commands of the rider are converted directly and the feedback from the front wheel is transparent in all driving conditions.
A kinematical anti-dive effect is also achieved, as for the Telelever, due to the location of the bearings trailing arms. While conventional telefork during heavy braking jounces heavily or locks, the Duolever still has spring left in this situation and therefore the rider can still brake into the corner very late, but directionally stable.
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